Oct 14, · Abstract: The philosophy of blockchain technology is concerned, among other things, with blockchain ontology, how it might be characterised, how it is being created, implemented, and adopted, how it operates in the world, and how it evolves over time. This paper concentrates on whether Bitcoin/blockchain can be considered a complex system and. On the Philosophy of Bitcoin/Blockchain Technology: Is It a Chaotic, Complex System? Renato P. Dos Santos - - Metaphilosophy 48 (5) Toward a Philosophy of Blockchain: A Symposium: Introduction. On the Philosophy of Bitcoin/Blockchain Technology: Is it a Chaotic, Complex System? Metaphilosophy 10 de outubro de The philosophy of blockchain technology is concerned, among other things, with blockchain ontology, how it might be characterised, how it is being created, implemented, and adopted, how it operates in the world, and how it.
On the philosophy of bitcoin/blockchain technology is it a chaotic complex systemCraig Warmke, What is Bitcoin? - PhilPapers
Robert Nozick - - Philosophy 52 Roland Hall - - Philosophical Quarterly 16 65 Social Action: A Teleological Account. Seumas Miller - - Cambridge University Press. The Right to Private Property. Jeremy Waldron - - Clarendon Press.
Georgy Ishmaev - - Philosophy and Technology 33 3 Renato P. Dos Santos - - Metaphilosophy 48 5 Nivedha - manuscript. Computing Ledgers and the Political Ontology of the Blockchain. Pablo R. Velasco - - Metaphilosophy 48 5 Kobina Hughes - - Metaphilosophy 48 5 Quinn Dupont - - Metaphilosophy 48 5 Towards a Philosophy of Financial Technologies.
Christopher Bertram - manuscript. Samuel Duncan - - Southern Journal of Philosophy 55 3 Corporate Property Rights. Larry May - - Journal of Business Ethics 5 3 - Intrinsic Limitations of Property Rights. Elegido - - Journal of Business Ethics 14 5 - Eigentumsrechte Im Finanzsystem.
John Hadley - - Lexington Books. Martin Zeilinger - unknown - Philosophy and Technology 31 1 Added to PP index Total views 17, of 2,, Recent downloads 6 months 60 11, of 2,, How can I increase my downloads? Sign in to use this feature. About us. Editorial team. Applied ethics. So basically, instead of remembering the input data which could be huge, you can just remember the hash and keep track. A cryptographic hash function is a special class of hash functions that has various properties making it ideal for cryptography.
There are certain properties that a cryptographic hash function needs to have in order to be considered secure. You can read about those in detail in our guide on hashing. There is just one property that we want you to focus on today. Even if you make a small change in your input, the changes that will be reflected in the hash will be huge. Do you see that?
Even though you just changed the case of the first alphabet of the input, look at how much that has affected the output hash. What we said was:. The blockchain is a linked list that contains data and a hash pointer that points to its previous block, hence creating the chain. What is a hash pointer? A hash pointer is similar to a pointer, but instead of just containing the address of the previous block it also contains the hash of the data inside the previous block.
Imagine this for a second, a hacker attacks block 3 and tries to change the data. Because of the properties of hash functions, a slight change in data will change the hash drastically. This means that any slight changes made in block 3, will change the hash which is stored in block 2, now that in turn will change the data and the hash of block 2 which will result in changes in block 1 and so on and so forth.
This will completely change the chain, which is impossible. This is exactly how blockchains attain immutability. The blockchain is maintained by a peer-to-peer network. The network is a collection of nodes that are interconnected to one another. Nodes are individual computers that take in input and performs a function on them and gives an output. There is no longer one central server, now there are several distributed and decentralized peers. One of the main uses of the peer-to-peer network is file sharing, also called torrenting.
If you are to use a client-server model for downloading, then it is usually extremely slow and entirely dependent on the health of the server. Plus, as we said, it is prone to censorship. However, in a peer-to-peer system, there is no central authority, and hence if even one of the peers in the network goes out of the race, you still have more peers to download from.
Plus, it is not subject to the idealistic standards of a central system, hence it is not prone to censorship. The decentralized nature of a peer-to-peer system becomes critical as we move on to the next section. How critical? Well, the simple at least on paper idea of combining this peer-to-peer network with a payment system has completely revolutionized the finance industry by giving birth to cryptocurrency.
The peer-to-peer network structure in cryptocurrency is structured according to the consensus mechanism that they are utilizing. For cryptocurrency like Bitcoin and Ethereum which uses a normal proof-of-work consensus mechanism Ethereum will eventually move on to Proof of Stake , all the nodes have the same privilege.
The idea is to create an egalitarian network. The nodes are not given any special privileges, however, their functions and degree of participation may differ. It is a flat topology. These decentralized cryptocurrencies are structured like that is because of a simple reason, to stay true to their philosophy.
The idea is to have a currency system, where everyone is treated as an equal and there is no governing body, which can determine the value of the currency based on a whim.
This is true for both bitcoin and Ethereum. Now, if there is no central system, how would everyone in the system get to know that a certain transaction has happened? The network follows the gossip protocol.
Think of how gossip spreads. The nodes nearest to her will get to know of this, and then they will tell the nodes closest to them, and then they will tell their neighbors, and this will keep on spreading out until everyone knows. Nodes are basically your nosy, annoying relatives. So, what is a node in the context of Ethereum? A node is simply a computer that participates in the Ethereum network. This participation can be in three ways:. However, the problem with this design is that it is not really that scalable.
Which is why a lot of new generation cryptocurrencies adopt a leader-based consensus mechanism. These cryptos are a lot faster but they are not the most decentralized of systems. Currently, finance offers the strongest use cases for the technology.
International remittances, for instance. And at the moment there is a high demand for blockchain developers. The blockchain potentially cuts out the middleman for these types of transactions. Transactions online are closely connected to the processes of identity verification. It is easy to imagine that wallet apps will transform in the coming years to include other types of identity management.
The impact of blockchain technology is genuinely far-reaching and has far more use-cases than being a facilitator for transactions. Several industries have discovered the benefits of blockchain integration. While Bitcoin and Ethereum are examples of public blockchains, most of these industries require specific functionalities out of their distributed ledger architecture.
Public blockchains are open protocols. Anyone can join the network and participate in the protocol and take care of the overall network consensus. Plus, the data stored in the blockchain is pretty much open for all to see since everything is public. Permissioned chains can also be differentiated into public permissioned and private permissioned blockchains.
In a public permissioned system, anyone can join the network, but just a select few can take care of the consensus and overall networks. Anybody can access a public ATM and use it. But, not everyone can open up the machine and add new functionalities and cash. Only the bank that owns the machine has the right to do so. Blockchains like stellar, ripple, EOS, sovrin, etc. In EOS, anybody can join the network. However, to take part in the consensus, you will need to be elected as one of the 21 block producers and lock up some stake in the ecosystem.
A private permissioned blockchain is one where members need to gain permission to enter the system and only a chosen few nodes are allowed to make administrative decisions. Think of a university. Not everyone can enter this university. Aspirants first need to pass an entrance exam. Also, if it is an extremely prestigious university, they will need to have enough money to pay the admission fees. Not every student gets to handle the administrative side.
Many companies have created consortiums using protocols like Hyperledger Fabric, which are private permissioned blockchains. The blockchain network gives internet users the ability to create value and authenticates digital information. What new business applications will result from this? Distributed ledger technology enable the coding of simple contracts that will execute when specified conditions are met.
Ethereum is an open-source blockchain project that was built specifically to realize this possibility. Still, in its early stages, Ethereum has the potential to leverage the usefulness of blockchains on a truly world-changing scale.
For instance, a derivative could be paid out when a financial instrument meets a certain benchmark, with the use of blockchain technology and Bitcoin enabling the payout to be automated. With Etherum being the biggest smart contract network, some top cryptocurrency exchanges like OKEx are also deploying their decentralized smart contract networks like OKEx Chain , where users can launch their decentralized applications, create token trading pairs and trade freely with no time and place restricted.
With companies like Uber and Airbnb flourishing, the sharing economy is already a proven success. Currently, however, users who want to hail a ride-sharing service have to rely on an intermediary like Uber. By enabling peer-to-peer payments, the blockchain opens the door to direct interaction between parties — a truly decentralized sharing economy results. An early example, OpenBazaar uses the blockchain to create a peer-to-peer eBay. Download the app onto your computing device, and you can transact with OpenBazzar vendors without paying transaction fees.
Crowdfunding initiatives like Kickstarter and Gofundme are doing the advance work for the emerging peer-to-peer economy. The popularity of these sites suggests people want to have a direct say in product development. Blockchains take this interest to the next level, potentially creating crowd-sourced venture capital funds.
A subsequent hack of project funds proved that the project was launched without proper due diligence, with disastrous consequences. By making the results fully transparent and publicly accessible, distributed database technology could bring full transparency to elections or any other kind of poll taking.
Ethereum-based smart contracts help to automate the process. The app, Boardroom, enables organizational decision-making to happen on the blockchain. In practice, this means company governance becomes fully transparent and verifiable when managing digital assets, equity or information. Consumers increasingly want to know that the ethical claims companies make about their products are real. Distributed ledgers provide an easy way to certify that the backstories of the things we buy are genuine.
Transparency comes with blockchain-based timestamping of a date and location — on ethical diamonds, for instance — that corresponds to a product number. The UK-based Provenance offers supply chain auditing for a range of consumer goods. Making use of the Ethereum blockchain, a Provenance pilot project ensures that fish sold in Sushi restaurants in Japan have been sustainably harvested by its suppliers in Indonesia. Decentralizing file storage on the internet brings clear benefits. Distributing data throughout the network protects files from getting hacked or lost.
Similar to the way a BitTorrent moves data around the internet, IPFS gets rid of the need for centralized client-server relationships i. An internet made up of completely decentralized websites has the potential to speed up file transfer and streaming times. Such an improvement is not only convenient. The crowdsourcing of predictions on event probability is proven to have a high degree of accuracy.
Averaging opinions cancels out the unexamined biases that distort judgment. Prediction markets that payout according to event outcomes are already active. The prediction market application Augur makes share offerings on the outcome of real-world events. Participants can earn money by buying into the correct prediction.
The more shares purchased in the correct outcome, the higher the payout will be. With a small commitment of funds less than a dollar , anyone can ask a question, create a market based on a predicted outcome, and collect half of all transaction fees the market generates.
As is well known, digital information can be infinitely reproduced — and distributed widely thanks to the internet. This has given web users globally a goldmine of free content. However, copyright holders have not been so lucky, losing control over their intellectual property and suffering financially as a consequence. Smart contracts can protect copyright and automate the sale of creative works online, eliminating the risk of file copying and redistribution. Mycelia uses the blockchain to create a peer-to-peer music distribution system.
Founded by the UK singer-songwriter Imogen Heap, Mycelia enables musicians to sell songs directly to audiences, as well as license samples to producers and divvy up royalties to songwriters and musicians — all of these functions being automated by smart contracts.
The capacity of blockchains to issue payments in fractional cryptocurrency amounts micropayments suggests this use case for the blockchain has a strong chance of success. What is the IoT? The network-controlled management of certain types of electronic devices — for instance, the monitoring of air temperature in a storage facility.
Smart contracts make the automation of remote systems management possible. A combination of software, sensors, and the network facilitates an exchange of data between objects and mechanisms. The result increases system efficiency and improves cost monitoring. The biggest players in manufacturing, tech, and telecommunications are all vying for IoT dominance. A natural extension of existing infrastructure controlled by incumbents, IoT applications will run the gamut from predictive maintenance of mechanical parts to data analytics, and mass-scale automated systems management.
Blockchain technologies enables the buying and selling of the renewable energy generated by neighborhood microgrids. When solar panels make excess energy, Ethereum-based smart contracts automatically redistribute it.
Similar types of smart contract automation will have many other applications as the IoT becomes a reality. Located in Brooklyn, Consensys is one of the foremost companies globally that is developing a range of applications for Ethereum. One project they are partnering on is Transactive Grid, working with the distributed energy outfit, LO3.
A prototype project currently up and running uses Ethereum smart contracts to automate the monitoring and redistribution of microgrid energy. There is a definite need for better identity management on the web. The ability to verify your identity is the lynchpin of financial transactions that happen online. However, remedies for the security risks that come with web commerce are imperfect at best. Distributed ledgers offer enhanced methods for proving who you are, along with the possibility to digitize personal documents.
Having a secure identity will also be important for online interactions — for instance, in the sharing economy. A good reputation, after all, is the most important condition for conducting transactions online. Developing digital identity standards is proving to be a highly complex process. Technical challenges aside, a universal online identity solution requires cooperation between private entities and the government.
Add to that the need to navigate legal systems in different countries and the problem becomes exponentially difficult. An E-Commerce on the internet currently relies on the SSL certificate the little green lock for secure transactions on the web. Netki is a startup that aspires to create an SSL standard for the blockchain. Anti-money laundering AML and know your customer KYC practices have a strong potential for being adapted to the blockchain. Currently, financial institutions must perform a labor-intensive multi-step process for each new customer.
KYC costs could be reduced through cross-institution client verification and at the same time increase monitoring and analysis effectiveness. Those transactions identified as being suspicious are forwarded on to compliance officers. Once verified by the bank, this data is cryptographically stored on the blockchain.