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Significant trades bitcoin githubNovember - This Month In Bitcoin Privacy
Bitcoin is the first successful implementation of decentralized digital money. Its key innovation is using proof-of-work to make modifying the ledger difficult. But in order to be really decentralized, Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies must provide at least some level of privacy.
Otherwise, those in power would still have some influence over cryptocurrency users. You can, and are in fact advised to, generate a new address for every transaction.
The fundamental trade-off here is between privacy and verifiability. Bitcoin tries to be decentralized: users must be able to independently validate incoming transactions. But to be able to verify incoming bitcoins, I must know where they are coming from. Bitcoin transactions, once included in a block, are stored on thousands of nodes worldwide. Anyone can download the whole Bitcoin transaction history and analyze it. Turns out, there are techniques to extract quite a bit of information from the blockchain.
One heuristic is that all UTXOs in a transaction belong to the same entity. This is not generally true due to multisigs etc, but good enough for a heuristic. Another heuristic is that one of the outputs is the change address. Multiple papers have been published along those ideas, and there are commercial companies which offer services of deanonymizing cryptocurrency users. Alternative cryptocurrencies aim at stronger privacy.
More established ones include Monero, Zcash, and to a lesser degree Dash. Newer ones, Beam and Grin, are based on the MimbleWimle protocol. They do indeed prevent or at least hinder blockchain analysis. While flaws have been described in all of them, one cannot simply open a blockchain explorer and look where certain coins come from. The information stored on the blockchain is stored there forever.
But what about the ephemeral information in the peer-to-peer network? Can an attacker extract any useful deanonymizing data from observing the network traffic? What makes the idea even more interesting is that privacy focused cryptocurrencies use P2P networks similar to Bitcoin….
Cryptocurrencies rely on peer-to-peer networks to propagate data. In particular, a Bitcoin node connects to 8 random nodes and may accept incoming connections and relays transactions to them. They, in turn, relay it to their neighbors, and so on. After a few seconds, nearly all nodes become aware of the new transaction, and miners can include it in a block. Trickling was used in Bitcoin before and is still used in Zcash. In trickling, a node chooses a random neighbor subset and announces the transaction only to them.
Then, after a certain delay, another random subset is chosen, and the transaction is announced to its members. In diffusion, for each neighbor, a node announces the transaction to each neighbor after a random delay. As we will show, these methods hinder but do not completely eliminate network analysis.
The general idea behind our attack is to connect to many nodes and log the timestamps of transaction announcements. The intuition is that transactions which originate from the same node propagate in a similar fashion.
We will define the notion of similarity later. First, we have to overcome some technical difficulties to collect the data.
As described earlier, Bitcoin uses a mechanism known as diffusion to network-level attacks on privacy difficult. Ideally, we want to be the first to receive a new transaction announcement from the peer which generated it. A typical full node maintains 8 outgoing and allows up to incoming connections. Say, it has 12 incoming connections, for a total of 20 connections. This means that if we connect to it, we have only a 1 in 20 chance of being the first to hear about a new transaction.
To overcome broadcast randomization, we use an alternative implementation of the Bitcoin networking stack called bcclient. Bcclient connects to Bitcoin nodes with multiple parallel connections. As Zcash inherited most of networking properties of Bitcoin, it was relatively straightforward to adapt bcclient for Zcash. Next, we want to find a metric to compare transactions. Each transaction can be characterized by a vector of IP addresses which announced it to us.
For each transaction, we consider a vector of IP addresses which were the the first to announce it to us, assign weights to them. Of all those countries, the Netherlands appears to face the most extreme demands, and we are very disappointed by this. Collecting identity information from individuals who are not customers would also prove challenging for VASPs, and likely only limit access to legitimate customers — particularly those from financially disadvantaged communities who stand to benefit most from this technology — since illicit actors would simply employ so-called money mules, or use stolen and synthetic identities to defeat the requirement, just as they do with respect to KYC requirements today.
The result would be to further exclude financially marginalized populations and hinder innovation which could serve their needs, without meaningfully affecting illicit financial activity.
Treasury and Secretary Mnuchin were planning to rush out some new regulation regarding self-hosted crypto wallets before the end of his term. Predictably, their terms and conditions regarding cryptocurrency, including bitcoin, do not allow withdrawals to other wallets.
But what else is there to be concerned about beyond blocking the path to financial sovereignty? One of the things that I remember from listening to the lawyers talk about this at EFF was an incident where the companies were getting so tired of getting these requests, the telcos in particular, that they wrote some tools for law enforcement to get this information more easily, right?
They automated the process of getting this data. PayPal discloses that, in addition to sharing data with financial institutions and credit and fraud detection agencies, the company shares data that may include email, device ID, and IP address with many third parties, including Google, Facebook, Twitter, and AdRoll for advertising purposes. Similarly, Venmo says it shares geolocation data for advertising purposes.
Cash App specifies that it shares information with third parties including Google but that the data is aggregated and anonymized so individual user identities are protected. In addition to the data collection practices of payment apps, users must also consider the policies of their third party integrations like Plaid. In TMIBP02 , I highlighted class action lawsuits that had been filed against them for violating consumer privacy and computer data protection laws. It can monetize the data in ways Plaid never could.
And the move completely side-steps restrictions on old-fashioned data sales. New privacy laws often regulate the sharing or sale of data across company boundaries. For them, seeking some sort of financial privacy through law is not an option. Maybe it is in the United States, or in Europe, or Japan, etc. Chainalysis does engage in such a practice and has a policy of understanding how customers use its data, according to Kennedy. She said that the countries in which the firm sells its product have strong requirements of rule of law and individual privacy.
Such promises provide little comfort to the vigilant. Commercial surveillance companies like the Milan-based Hacking Team historically made similar claims, and even continued to assert them after a data breach of their emails, documents, and code showed this to be clearly false.
Hardware wallet provider Coinkite published a beta release of Coldcard firmware version 3. As mentioned in Bitcoin Optech Newsletter , another wallet to add PayJoin support recently is Sparrow , a multi-platform lightweight client designed to run with Electrum servers.
It already comes with coin control features, hardware wallet compatibility, and Tor. This concern can also be mitigated when using Samourai Wallet , which will generate a like-type change output that corresponds to the address being spent to.
For example, if you are sending to a segwit enabled address, the change output returned to your wallet will also be segwit enabled. Chris Belcher , developer of JoinMarket, Electrum Personal Server, and CoinSwap, indirectly responded to these claims with a thread on the privacy benefits. Right now these transactions publish a visible contract on-chain. Nick has summarised the significant development events here. Check out Bitcoin Optech Newsletter and for summaries on Taproot activation and other recent technical developments beyond Bitcoin privacy.
Samourai Wallet released version 0. They had opened it for public beta testing in September. These types of automated and secure communications are particularly useful when trying to compose complex bitcoin transactions with multiple parties. As such, Soroban can also be leveraged for existing technologies like JoinMarket, and in-development technologies like Coinswap and Snickr.
Instead of manually having to share and scan 5 different QR codes, everything is automatically communicated with your collaborator in encrypted private messages delivered over Tor. Thanks for reading!